Leaded windows are made in the traditional method that has been passed down since medieval times. Lead creates the lines of the design and encases the glass which is cemented in place making the window water-tight. The method has changed little over hundreds of years, the main difference being that contemporary glass comes in a wide and varied range of colours and textures that were not previously available. (See the history of stained glass section for more details.)
Copperfoil is in the form of a copper tape that is wrapped around the outside edge of each piece of shaped glass. Several pieces are then soldered together to create objects, either as windows or 3-D shapes, such as candlelights and small sculptures. Copperfoil can also be combined with lead in making more delicate and detailed sections in leaded windows.
The Applique method in glass is similar to other crafts where small pieces are applied to another surface with glue. Cement is used to fill the gaps and mimic the effect of lead lines and the end result is similar to a mosaic.